Abstract - Janeiro a Julho de 2022
A Point of View About Fluency - CONCEITO
J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2022 Jan 4;1-8. Online ahead of print.
Seth E Tichenor, Christopher Constantino, J Scott Yaruss
Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA; Florida State University, Tallahassee; Michigan State University, East Lansing.
Purpose: This article presents several potential concerns with the common usage of the term fluency in the study of stuttering and people who stutter (or, as many speakers now prefer, stutterers). Our goal is to bridge gaps between clinicians, researchers, and stutterers to foster a greater sense of collaboration and understanding regarding the words that are used and meanings that are intended.
Method: We begin by reviewing the history of the term fluency. We then explore its usage and current connotations to examine whether the term meaningfully describes constructs that are relevant to the study of the stuttering condition.
Results: By highlighting current research and perspectives of stutterers, we conclude that the term fluency (a) is not fully inclusive, (b) encourages the use of misleading measurement procedures, (c) constrains the subjective experience of stuttering within a false binary categorization, and (d) perpetuates a cycle of stigma that is detrimental to stutterers and to the stuttering community as a whole.
Conclusions: We recommend that researchers and clinicians cease referring to stuttering as a fluency disorder and simply refer to it as stuttering. Furthermore, we recommend that researchers and clinicians distinguish between moments of stuttering (i.e., what stutterers experience when they lose control of their speech or feel stuck) and the overall lived experience of the stuttering condition.
PMID: 34982943 DOI: 10.1044/2021_JSLHR-21-00342
Artificial Neural Networks Combined with the Principal Component Analysis for Non-Fluent Speech Recognition - CONCEITO
Sensors (Basel). 2022 Jan 1;22(1):321
Free Full Text: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8749906/pdf/sensors-22-00321.pdf
Izabela Świetlicka, Wiesława Kuniszyk-Jóźkowiak, Michał Świetlicki
University of Life Sciences, Lublin, Poland; Faculty of Physical Education and Health in Biała Podlaska, Józef Piłsudski University of Physical Education in Warsaw, Biała Podlaska, Poland; Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Lublin University of Technology, Lublin, Poland.
The presented paper introduces principal component analysis application for dimensionality reduction of variables describing speech signal and applicability of obtained results for the disturbed and fluent speech recognition process. A set of fluent speech signals and three speech disturbances-blocks before words starting with plosives, syllable repetitions, and sound-initial prolongations-was transformed using principal component analysis. The result was a model containing four principal components describing analysed utterances. Distances between standardised original variables and elements of the observation matrix in a new system of coordinates were calculated and then applied in the recognition process. As a classifying algorithm, the multilayer perceptron network was used. Achieved results were compared with outcomes from previous experiments where speech samples were parameterised with the Kohonen network application. The classifying network achieved overall accuracy at 76% (from 50% to 91%, depending on the dysfluency type).
PMID: 35009863 DOI: 10.3390/s22010321
Evaluation of elements in hair samples of children with developmental language disorder (DLD) - AVALIAÇÃO
Nutr Neurosci. 2022 Jan 15;1-10. Online ahead of print.
Ayat Bani Rashaid, Mazin Alqhazo, Dianne F Newbury, Heba Kanaan, Mohammad El-Khateeb, Ahmad Abukashabeh, Feda Al-Tamimi
Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid Jordan; Oxford Brookes University, Oxford, UK; Jordan Atomic Energy Commission, Amman, Jordan.
Background: Recent studies have highlighted a role for trace elements and toxic metals across neurodevelopmental disorders, including developmental stuttering, Autistic Spectrum Disorders (ASD), and Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD). However, these environmental influences have yet to be explored in relation to Developmental Language Disorder (DLD).
Methods: Elemental hair composition of seven elements; zinc (64Zn), magnesium (26Mg), iron (57Fe), potassium (39K), aluminum (27Al), lead (208Pb), and barium (138Ba) were analyzed in hair samples from 35 children affected by DLD and 35 controls with typical language development (TLD) using both inductive coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy (ICP-OES) and inductive coupled plasma mass spectroscopy (ICP-MS).
Results: The concentration of 64Zn was significantly lower in the hair of DLD group compared to the TLD control group. All other elements showed similar levels between cases and controls. This pilot study demonstrates the utility of trace elements and toxic metals screening in relation to language disorders and the use of hair samples in such investigations.
Conclusion: The finding that zinc levels differed between cases and controls could represent a clinically relevant result and should be replicated in larger sample size across time. A wider battery of related elements will help to better understand the role of trace elements and toxic metals in DLD.
PMID: 35034571 DOI: 10.1080/1028415X.2021.2022068
Nonword Repetition Performance Differentiates Children Who Stutter With and Without Concomitant Speech Sound and Developmental Language Disorders - INFANTIL / FALA
J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2022 Jan 4;1-13. Online ahead of print.
Katelyn L Gerwin, Bridget Walsh, Seth E Tichenor
Michigan State University, East Lansing; Duquesne University, Pittsburgh, PA.
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine how nonword repetition (NWR) performance may be impacted by the presence of concomitant speech and language disorders in young children who stutter (CWS).
Method: One hundred forty-one children (88 CWS and 53 children who do not stutter [CWNS]) participated. CWS were divided into groups based on the presence of speech sound and/or language disorder or typical speech sound production and language abilities. NWR abilities were measured using stimuli composed of one- to four-syllable nonwords.
Results: CWS with typical speech and language and CWNS had higher accuracy scores than CWS with concomitant speech and language disorders. We found no difference in accuracy scores between CWNS and CWS with typical speech and language abilities, nor did we find differences between CWS with speech sound disorder and CWS with both speech sound and language disorders. Accuracy decreased as nonword length increased for all groups.
Conclusions: We found that the presence of a concomitant speech and language disorder was a driving factor behind poorer NWR performance in CWS. Accuracy scores differentiated CWS with concomitant disorders from CWS with typical speech and language but not CWS with typical speech and language from CWNS. Considering the speech and language abilities of CWS helped clarify poorer NWR performance and enhances generalizability to the population that exists clinically.
PMID: 34982942 DOI: 10.1044/2021_JSLHR-21-00334
Professors' Perceptions and Evaluations of Students Who Do and Do Not Stutter Following Oral Presentations - SOCIAL
Lang Speech Hear Serv Sch. 2022 Jan 5;53(1):133-149. Epub 2021 Dec 3.
Danielle Werle, Courtney T Byrd
The University of Texas at Austin.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the perceptual ratings and performance evaluations of students who do and do not stutter by professors who require oral presentations. Additionally, this study sought to investigate the influence of behaviors related to communication competence on perceptual and evaluative ratings.
Method: One hundred fifty-eight college instructors who require oral presentations in their classes participated in this study. Participants viewed one video of four possible randomized conditions: (a) presence of stuttering + low communication competence, (b) absence of stuttering + low communication competence, (c) presence of stuttering + high communication competence, and (d) absence of stuttering + high communication competence. Participants evaluated student performance against a standardized rubric and rated the student along 16 personality traits.
Results: Results of separate 2 × 2 analyses of variance revealed professors' view and evaluate students presenting with high communication competence more positively overall, regardless as to whether stuttering is present or not. Significant interactions between fluency (i.e., presence vs. absence of stuttering) and communication competence (i.e., high vs. low) were found for negative personality traits, as well as delivery evaluation scores. The video for which the student stuttered and presented with low communication competence was rated more positively than the video for which the student did not stutter and presented with low communication competence.
Conclusions: Professors perceive and evaluate students who stutter differently from their nonstuttering peers, and those ratings are moderated by levels of communication competence. High-communication-competence behaviors improved perceptual and evaluation scores; however, in the presence of low-communication-competence behaviors, professors overcorrect in the form of positive feedback bias, which may have negative long-term academic consequences.
PMID: 34861764 DOI: 10.1044/2021_LSHSS-21-00069
The effect of gap duration on the perception of fluent versus disfluent speech - AVALIAÇÃO
J Fluency Disord. 2022 Jan 7;71:105896. Online ahead of print.
Haley J Warner, D H Whalen, Daphna Harel, Eric S Jackson
New York University, New York, NY, United States; City University of New York, New York, NY, United States; Haskins Laboratories, New Haven, CT, United States; Yale University, New Haven, CT, United States.
Purpose: Gap duration contributes to the perception of utterances as fluent or disfluent, but few studies have systematically investigated the impact of gap duration on fluency judgments. The purposes of this study were to determine how gaps impact disfluency perception, and how listener background and experience impact these judgments.
Methods: Sixty participants (20 adults who stutter [AWS], 20 speech-language pathologists [SLPs], and 20 naïve listeners) listened to four tokens of the utterance, "Buy Bobby a puppy," produced at typical speech rates. The gap duration between "Buy" and "Bobby" was systematically manipulated with gaps ranging from 23.59 ms to 325.44 ms. Participants identified stimuli as fluent or disfluent.
Results: The disfluency threshold - the point at which 50 % of trials were categorized as disfluent - occurred at a gap duration of 126.46 ms, across all participants and tokens. The SLPs exhibited higher disfluency thresholds than the AWS and the naïve listeners.
Conclusion: This study determined, based on the specific set of stimuli used, when the perception of utterances tends to shift from fluent to disfluent. Group differences indicated that SLPs are less inclined to identify disfluencies in speech potentially because they aim to be less critical of speech that deviates from "typical".
PMID: 35032922 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2022.105896