Abstract - Janeiro a Julho de 2020
A parent-report scale of behavioral inhibition: Validation and application to preschool-age children who do and do not stutter - EMOCIONAL
J Fluency Disord. 2020 Mar;63:105748. Epub 2020 Feb 1.
Ntourou K, DeFranco EO, Conture EG, Walden TA, Mushtaq N.
Vanderbilt University, United States; University of Colorado Boulder, United States; University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center, United States.
PURPOSE: This two-part (i.e., Study 1, Study 2) study investigated behavioral inhibition (BI) in preschool-age children who do (CWS) and do not (CWNS) stutter. The purpose of Study 1 was to develop the Short Behavioral Inhibition Scale (SBIS), a parent-report scale of BI. The purpose of Study 2 was to determine, based on the SBIS, differences in BI between CWS and CWNS, and associations between BI and CWS's stuttering frequency, stuttering severity, speech-associated attitudes, and stuttering-related consequences/reactions.
METHOD: Participants in Study 1 were 225 CWS and 243 CWNS with the majority of them being included in Study 2. In Study 2, a speech sample was obtained for the calculation of stuttering frequency and severity, and the parents of a subset of CWS completed the Communication Attitude Test for Preschool and Kindergarten Children Who Stutter (Vanryckeghem & Brutten, 2007), and the Test of Childhood Stuttering Disfluency-Related Consequences Rating Scale (Gillam, Logan, & Pearson, 2009).
RESULTS: Study 1 analyses indicated that SBIS is a valid and reliable tool whose items assess a single, relatively homogeneous construct. In Study 2, CWS exhibited greater mean and extreme BI tendencies than CWNS. Also CWS with higher, compared to CWS with lower, BI presented with greater stuttering frequency, more severe stuttering, greater stuttering-related consequences, and more negative communication attitudes (for CWS older than 4 years of age).
CONCLUSION: Findings were taken to suggest that BI is associated with early childhood stuttering and that the SBIS could be included as part of a comprehensive evaluation of stuttering.
PMID: 32065916 PMCID: PMC7061916 [Available on 2021-03-01] DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2020.105748
Amino acids profiles of children who stutter compared to their fluent sibling - CONCEITO
Int J Psychiatry Clin Pract. 2020 Mar 4:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Alqhazo M, Rashaid AB.
Jordan University of Science and Technology, Irbid, Jordan.
Purpose: This study scrutinises the abundances of 9 neurological-related amino acids of the scalp hair of 35 (5 females, 30 males) children who stutter and 30 normally fluent children (age and sex matched).Methods: Samples of hair from children who stutter aged (5-9 years) were collected from Speech Clinic at King Abdullah Hospital. The control subjects were selected from the same families of children who stutter to exclude the effect of nutritional, environmental, and biological factors. Amino Acid Analyser was used to measure the concentrations of amino acids in acid hydrolysed hair samples.
Results: results indicated that the concentrations of threonine, tyrosine, and isoleucine (p = 0.001, 0.001, 0.02 respectively) are lower in hair samples of people who stutter compared with samples of normal fluent speakers.
Conclusion: The findings of this study could introduce a new treatment protocol including the supplementation of reduced nutritional elements.
KEY POINTS: Concentrations of amino acids (threonine, isoleucine, and tyrosine) in the hair samples of people who stutter were significantly lower than the concentrations in the hair samples of control group. Concentrations of amino acids (histidine and glutamate) in hair samples of people who stutter were lower than control group with low significant values. The concentrations of amino acids (phenylalanine, serine, glycine, aspartate, glutamate) were not significantly different between hair samples of stuttering group and control group. The findings of the current study will be helpful in designing a new treatment method based on the supplementation of deficient amino acids.
PMID: 32129116 DOI: 10.1080/13651501.2020.1735447
Auditory temporal processing assessment in children with developmental stuttering - AUDITIVO
Int J Pediatr Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Feb 6;132:109935 [Epub ahead of print]
Lotfi Y, Dastgerdi ZH, Farazi M, Moossavi A, Bakhshi E.
University of Social Welfare and Rehabilitation Sciences, Tehran, Iran; Iran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran.
OBJECTIVE: Stuttering is a developmental disorder of speech production with a dynamic and multifactorial nature. Scientific theories mentioned the role of auditory processing disorder in stuttering. Investigating the auditory processing in stuttering would provide insights into the mechanisms of stuttering. The details of basic auditory processing in children with stuttering (CWS) continue to remain uncertain. This study aimed to investigate the auditory temporal processing (ATP) in CWS and also its relationship with the stuttering severity.
METHODS: The participants of this comparative cross-sectional study were 54 CWS and 63 children without stuttering (CWOS). All children were between 7 and 12 years old. ATP ability of the participants was measured using the Backward Masking (BM), Duration Pattern (DP), and Gap in Noise (GIN) tests. Then, the groups were compared in terms of ATP results. The correlation between the scores of these tests and stuttering severity was assessed.
RESULTS: According to the results, CWS showed poorer performance on DP, BM and GIN tests when compared with CWOS. Moreover, the stuttering severity had a significant negative correlation with the DP scores and percentage of correct identification scores in GIN; whereas it had a significant positive correlation with the BM thresholds.
CONCLUSIONS: The results showed that some CWS have ATP disorder, which could exacerbate their stuttering. These findings highlighted the role of ATP disorder in stuttering.
PMID: 32058157 DOI: 10.1016/j.ijporl.2020.109935
Communication Attitude of Kannada-Speaking School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter - AVALIAÇÃO
Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2020 Feb 4:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Veerabhadrappa RC, Vanryckeghem M, Maruthy S.
All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysore, India, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.
BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence suggests that the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the speech-associated attitude of school-age children who stutter (CWS).
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to adapt and validate the CAT for the Kannada-speaking school-age CWS.
METHODS: The original version of the CAT was forward- and back-translated by the first author. The Communication Attitude Test Kannada (CAT-K) was then administered to 293 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 100 CWS. All children were native speakers of the Kannada language and were between the ages of 7 and 14 years. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-fourth edition (SSI-4) was used to estimate the severity of stuttering.
RESULTS: The data revealed that, in comparison to CWNS, the CWS' mean CAT-K score was significantly higher, and a significant effect of stuttering severity and age on mean attitude scores was observed. In addition, results showed that the CAT-K is a reliable and valid test.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the presence of a negative attitude in Kannada-speaking CWS and that the CAT-K is a useful tool in the assessment of Kannada school-age CWS. Given the need for speech-language pathologists to address a speech-associated negative attitude in CWS, incorporating the CAT-K as part of the diagnostic assessment of stuttering is valuable.
PMID: 32018262 DOI: 10.1159/000505423
Crystal Structure of the Mannose-6-Phosphate Uncovering Enzyme - GENÉTICA
Structure. 2020 Feb 25. pii: S0969-2126(20)30042-3. [Epub ahead of print]
Gorelik A, Illes K, Nagar B.
McGill University, Montreal, Canada.
Most lysosomal hydrolytic enzymes reach their destination via the mannose-6-phosphate (M6P) pathway. The enzyme N-acetylglucosamine-1-phosphodiester α-N-acetylglucosaminidase (NAGPA, or "uncovering enzyme") catalyzes the second step in the M6P tag formation, namely the removal of the masking N-acetylglucosamine (GlcNAc) portion. Defects in this protein are associated with non-syndromic stuttering. To gain a better understanding of the function and regulation of this enzyme, we determined its crystal structure. The propeptide binds in a groove on the globular catalytic domain, blocking active site access. High-affinity substrate binding is enabled by a conformational switch in an active site loop. The protein recognizes the GlcNAc and phosphate portions of its substrate, but not the mannose moiety of the glycan. Based on enzymatic and 1H-NMR analysis, a catalytic mechanism is proposed. Crystallographic and solution scattering analyses suggest that the C-terminal domain forms a long flexible stem that extends the enzyme away from the Golgi membrane.
PMID: 32109365 DOI: 10.1016/j.str.2020.02.001
Disruption of the Frontal Aslant Tract is Not Associated with Long-Term Postoperative Language Deficits: A Case Report - NEUROCIÊNCIAS
World Neurosurg. 2020 Jan;133:192-195. Epub 2019 Sep 28.
Young JS, Morshed RA, Mansoori Z, Cha S, Berger MS.
University of California, San Francisco.
BACKGROUND and Importance: The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a white matter fiber pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca area. This tract in the dominant hemisphere has been shown to play a role in speech initiation and production, and direct subcortical stimulation can induce stuttering and speech arrest in a patient. However, controversy remains as to whether disruption of this pathway will lead to a permanent language deficit and if it is even necessary to map this tract during tumor resections of the dominant frontal lobe.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of a patient with a lower grade diffuse glioma invading the dominant FAT that was removed with an asleep craniotomy. In the immediate postoperative state, the patient had a transcortical motor dysphasia and was unable to initiate speech. These immediate language deficits quickly recovered, and the patient was neurological intact at the time of discharge a few days after surgery.
CONCLUSION: Given the high likelihood for a complete neurological recovery including transient aphasia, we propose that awake mapping for the purpose of identifying the dominant FAT is unnecessary during tumor resection and that disruption of this tract is not associated with any long-term language deficits.
PMID: 31574328 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.09.128
Effect of muscular activation on surrounding motor networks in developmental stuttering: A TMS study - PSICOMOTOR
Brain Lang. 2020 Mar 2;205:104774.[Epub ahead of print]
Busan P, Del Ben G, Tantone A, Halaj L, Bernardini S, Natarelli G, Manganotti P, Battaglini PP.
IRCCS Ospedale San Camillo, Venice, Italy; University of Trieste, Trieste, Italy; ABC® Balbuzie, Torino, Italy; University of Padua, Padua, Italy.
Previous studies regarding developmental stuttering (DS) suggest that motor neural networks are strongly affected. Transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) was used to investigate neural activation of the primary motor cortex in DS during movement execution, and the influence of muscle representations involved in movements on "surrounding" ones. TMS was applied over the contralateral abductor digiti minimi (ADM) motor representation, at rest and during the movement of homologue first dorsal interosseous muscles (tonic contraction, phasic movements cued by acoustic signalling, and "self-paced" movements). Results highlighted a lower cortico-spinal excitability of ADM in the left hemisphere of stutterers, and an enhanced intracortical inhibition in their right motor cortex (in comparison to fluent speakers). Abnormal intracortical functioning was especially evident during phasic contractions cued by "external" acoustic signals. An exaggerated inhibition of muscles not directly involved in intended movements, in stuttering, may be useful to obtain more efficient motor control. This was stronger during contractions cued by "external" signals, highlighting mechanisms likely used by stutterers during fluency-evoking conditions.
PMID: 32135384 DOI: 10.1016/j.bandl.2020.104774
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for speech protocols: characterization of motion artifacts and guidelines for improving data analysis - FALA
Neurophotonics. 2020 Jan;7(1):015001. Epub 2020 Jan 10.
Free full text: https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/neurophotonics/volume-7/issue-01/015001/Functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-speech-protocols--characterization-of/10.1117/1.NPh.7.1.015001.full?SSO=1
Novi SL, Roberts E, Spagnuolo D, Spilsbury BM, Price DC, Imbalzano CA, Forero E, Yodh AG, Tellis GM, Tellis CM, Mesquita RC.
University of Campinas, Institute of Physics, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Brazilian Institute of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Misericordia University, Department of Speech-Language Pathology, Dallas, Pennsylvania, United States; University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
Monitoring speech tasks with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) enables investigation of speech production mechanisms and informs treatment strategies for speech-related disorders such as stuttering. Unfortunately, due to movement of the temporalis muscle, speech production can induce relative movement between probe optodes and skin. These movements generate motion artifacts during speech tasks. In practice, spurious hemodynamic responses in functional activation signals arise from lack of information about the consequences of speech-related motion artifacts, as well as from lack of standardized processing procedures for fNIRS signals during speech tasks. To this end, we characterize the effects of speech production on fNIRS signals, and we introduce a systematic analysis to ameliorate motion artifacts. The study measured 50 healthy subjects performing jaw movement (JM) tasks and found that JM produces two different patterns of motion artifacts in fNIRS. To remove these unwanted contributions, we validate a hybrid motion-correction algorithm based sequentially on spline interpolation and then wavelet filtering. We compared performance of the hybrid algorithm with standard algorithms based on spline interpolation only and wavelet decomposition only. The hybrid algorithm corrected 94% of the artifacts produced by JM, and it did not lead to spurious responses in the data. We also validated the hybrid algorithm during a reading task performed under two different conditions: reading aloud and reading silently. For both conditions, we observed significant cortical activation in brain regions related to reading. Moreover, when comparing the two conditions, good agreement of spatial and temporal activation patterns was found only when data were analyzed using the hybrid approach. Overall, the study demonstrates a standardized processing scheme for fNIRS data during speech protocols. The scheme decreases spurious responses and intersubject variability due to motion artifacts.
PMID: 31956662 PMCID: PMC6953699 [Available on 2021-01-10] DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.7.1.015001
Investigating resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of school-age children who stutter - AMBIENTE
Codas. 2020 Jan 13;32(2):e20190093
Free full text: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/codas/v32n2/2317-1782-codas-32-2-e20190093.pdf
Yaşar Ö, Vural-Batık M, Özdemir Ş.
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
PURPOSE: The attitude of mothers of children who stutter is believed to be crucial in the management of therapy process. Therefore, this study aimed at the description of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of children with stuttering, as well as at the exploration of the relationship between them.
METHODS: The study sample consisted of 33 mothers of children with stuttering aged 6-12 years. The data were gathered using the following instruments: Mother Resilience Scale, Revised Parental Social Support Scale, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Stuttering Severity Instrument-4, and a personal information form.
RESULTS: Resilience of mothers of children who stutter was high, whereas perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of the participants were lower. Mother's increased level of perceived social support resulted in increased resilience level and decreased trait anxiety level. The trait anxiety levels of mothers with a college degree were significantly lower than those of mothers with other education levels. No statistically significant correlation was observed between stuttering severity and the levels of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety.
CONCLUSION: Although mothers of stuttering children present the required skills to cope with the situation, it is believed that they need more social support. Consequently, offering professional support to mothers in the course of stuttering management and referring them to appropriate intervention programs are emphasized.
PMID: 31939494 DOI: 10.1590/2317-1782/20192019093
Involvement of the Cortico-Basal Ganglia-Thalamocortical Loop in Developmental Stuttering - CONCEITO
Front Psychol. 2020 Jan 28;10:3088.
Free PMC Article: https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6997432/pdf/fpsyg-10-03088.pdf
Chang SE, Guenther FH.
University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; Boston University, Boston, MA, United States; Massachusetts Institute of Technology, Cambridge, MA, United States; Massachusetts General Hospital, Charlestown, MA, United States.
Stuttering is a complex neurodevelopmental disorder that has to date eluded a clear explication of its pathophysiological bases. In this review, we utilize the Directions Into Velocities of Articulators (DIVA) neurocomputational modeling framework to mechanistically interpret relevant findings from the behavioral and neurological literatures on stuttering. Within this theoretical framework, we propose that the primary impairment underlying stuttering behavior is malfunction in the cortico-basal ganglia-thalamocortical (hereafter, cortico-BG) loop that is responsible for initiating speech motor programs. This theoretical perspective predicts three possible loci of impaired neural processing within the cortico-BG loop that could lead to stuttering behaviors: impairment within the basal ganglia proper; impairment of axonal projections between cerebral cortex, basal ganglia, and thalamus; and impairment in cortical processing. These theoretical perspectives are presented in detail, followed by a review of empirical data that make reference to these three possibilities. We also highlight any differences that are present in the literature based on examining adults versus children, which give important insights into potential core deficits associated with stuttering versus compensatory changes that occur in the brain as a result of having stuttered for many years in the case of adults who stutter. We conclude with outstanding questions in the field and promising areas for future studies that have the potential to further advance mechanistic understanding of neural deficits underlying persistent developmental stuttering.
PMID: 32047456 PMCID: PMC6997432 DOI: 10.3389/fpsyg.2019.03088
Lexical diversity and lexical skills in children who stutter - LINGUAGEM
J Fluency Disord. 2020 Jan 22;63:105747. [Epub ahead of print]
Luckman C, Wagovich SA, Weber C, Brown B, Chang SE, Hall NE, Bernstein Ratner N.
University of Maryland, College Park, MD,United States; University of Missouri, Columbia, MO,United States; Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, United States; University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI, United States; University of Maine, Orono, ME, United States; University of Maryland, College Park, MD, United States.
PURPOSE: Numerous "small N" studies of language ability in children who stutter have produced differing conclusions. We combined test and spontaneous language data from a large cohort of children who stutter (CWS) and typically fluent peers, gathered from independent laboratories across the US, to appraise a variety of lexical measures.
METHOD: Standardized receptive and expressive vocabulary test data and spontaneous language samples from 99 pairs of CWS (ages 25-100 months), and age-, gender-, and SES-matched children who do not stutter (CWNS) were compared. Language sample transcripts were analyzed with four measures of lexical diversity. Correlations between lexical diversity measures and expressive vocabulary scores were also calculated.
RESULTS: On standardized tests of both receptive and expressive vocabulary, there were significant differences between CWS and CWNS. In contrast, on spontaneous language measures of lexical diversity, CWS did not differ in their lexical diversity, across analyses, compared to CWNS. Three of the four lexical diversity analyses, MATTR, VocD, and NDW, were significantly correlated with each other.
CONCLUSIONS: We were able to confirm prior findings of relative disadvantage on standardized vocabulary tests for a very large sample of well-matched CWS. However, spontaneous language measures of lexical diversity did not distinguish the groups. This relative weakness in CWS may emerge from task differences: CWS are free to encode their own spontaneous utterances but must comply with explicit lexical prompts in standardized testing situations.
PMID: 32058092 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2020.105747
Otorhinolaryngologists nominated for the Nobel Prize 1901-1940 - HISTÓRIA
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Hansson N, Drobietz M, Mudry A.
Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany; Stanford University School of Medicine, USA.
PURPOSE: Several scholars with links to ENT have received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. This overview takes into account ENT Nobel nominees, who never received the award.
METHODS: Drawing a comparison on the nominations collected in the archive of the Nobel Committee for physiology or medicine in Stockholm, the Nobel archive database and secondary literature; the paper analyzes for the first time the nominations of Hans Schmid (Stettin), Hermann Gutzmann (Berlin), Karl Wittmaack (Hamburg), and Chevalier Jackson (Chicago). We also bring up nomination letters written by prominent German nominators such as Hermann Schwartze (one of the founders of this journal) and August Lucae.
RESULTS: Hans Schmid was the first surgeon to be brought up in a Nobel Prize nomination for an ENT procedure (1901), but since he had passed away 5 years earlier he was not evaluated by the Nobel Committee. Hermann Gutzmann was a strong candidate in 1917 and reached the shortlist because of his pioneering work on stutter, but no Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded that year. In the 1930's, both Karl Wittmaack and Chevalier Jackson were repeatedly nominated for ENT research.
CONCLUSION: Nobel Prize nominations are to date underused sources that shed new light on some scholars in ENT history.
PMID: 32036407 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-05833-y
Prevalence and features of comorbid stuttering and speech sound disorder at age 4 years - CONCEITO
J Commun Disord. 2020 Feb 13;84:105976. [Epub ahead of print]
Unicomb R, Kefalianos E, Reilly S, Cook F, Morgan A.
The University of Newcastle, Australia; The University of Melbourne, Australia; Murdoch Children's Research Institute, Melbourne, Australia; Griffith University, Queensland, Australia.
BACKGROUND: Stuttering and speech sound disorder may co-occur during early childhood, although the exact rate of comorbidity in a community-cohort sample remains unknown. In isolation, both disorders have the potential for long-term negative effects. Comorbidity rates of 16%-46% reported in previous studies were based on parent report, speech-language therapist surveys, case file audits or direct observation studies from clinical samples. Rigorous methodology utilising a prospective, longitudinal community-cohort design is required to support these previous findings.
AIMS: First, to identify the proportion of children with comorbid stuttering and speech sound disorder at 4 years of age drawn from a community-cohort study. Second, to compare demographic and clinical features of this comorbid diagnosis group compared to children with no diagnosis of either disorder, or those with either disorder in isolation.
METHODS & PROCEDURES: Participants were drawn from a prospective, longitudinal community cohort study (the Early Language in Victoria Study) at 4 years of age (n = 1607). Demographic and clinical features for comparison were theoretically driven and included: gender, birth history, feeding status, speech and language status, family history of communication difficulties, maternal education, maternal vocabulary, maternal mental health and socioeconomic status.
OUTCOMES & RESULTS: Of the 160 children diagnosed with stuttering between 2 and 4 years of age, 6.88 % (n = 11) also had a speech sound disorder. Given the small sample size and number of comparisons performed, there was insufficient evidence to rule out that group differences observed were not simply due to chance.
CONCLUSIONS & IMPLICATIONS: The prevalence of comorbid stuttering and speech sound disorder was lower in a community cohort compared to that reported in clinical studies. Higher rates reported in clinical samples may be due to increased parental help-seeking behaviour when the two disorders co-occur. Subsequently, these children may present to clinics more frequently. Accurate representation of prevalence allows for population specific research on best practice assessment and intervention. Currently little is known about how best to manage this caseload, therefore more research is required in this area, including the determination of prognostic variables to provide efficient and effective management.
PMID: 32092590 DOI: 10.1016/j.jcomdis.2020.105976
The Application of EEG Mu Rhythm Measures to Neurophysiological Research in Stuttering. - NEUROCIÊNCIAS
Front Hum Neurosci. 2020 Jan 10;13:458.
Jenson D, Bowers AL, Hudock D, Saltuklaroglu T.
Washington State University, Spokane, WA, United States; University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, United States; University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Knoxville, TN, United States.
Deficits in basal ganglia-based inhibitory and timing circuits along with sensorimotor internal modeling mechanisms are thought to underlie stuttering. However, much remains to be learned regarding the precise manner how these deficits contribute to disrupting both speech and cognitive functions in those who stutter. Herein, we examine the suitability of electroencephalographic (EEG) mu rhythms for addressing these deficits. We review some previous findings of mu rhythm activity differentiating stuttering from non-stuttering individuals and present some new preliminary findings capturing stuttering-related deficits in working memory. Mu rhythms are characterized by spectral peaks in alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency bands (mu-alpha and mu-beta). They emanate from premotor/motor regions and are influenced by basal ganglia and sensorimotor function. More specifically, alpha peaks (mu-alpha) are sensitive to basal ganglia-based inhibitory signals and sensory-to-motor feedback. Beta peaks (mu-beta) are sensitive to changes in timing and capture motor-to-sensory (i.e., forward model) projections. Observing simultaneous changes in mu-alpha and mu-beta across the time-course of specific events provides a rich window for observing neurophysiological deficits associated with stuttering in both speech and cognitive tasks and can provide a better understanding of the functional relationship between these stuttering symptoms. We review how independent component analysis (ICA) can extract mu rhythms from raw EEG signals in speech production tasks, such that changes in alpha and beta power are mapped to myogenic activity from articulators. We review findings from speech production and auditory discrimination tasks demonstrating that mu-alpha and mu-beta are highly sensitive to capturing sensorimotor and basal ganglia deficits associated with stuttering with high temporal precision. Novel findings from a non-word repetition (working memory) task are also included. They show reduced mu-alpha suppression in a stuttering group compared to a typically fluent group. Finally, we review current limitations and directions for future research.
PMID: 31998103 PMCID: PMC6965028 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00458
The Neurocognition of Developmental Disorders of Language - NEUROCIÊNCIAS
Annu Rev Psychol. 2020 Jan 4; 71: 389-417. Epub 2019 Jul 23
Ullman MT, Earle FS, Walenski M, Janacsek K.
Georgetown University, Washington; University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA; Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA; Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), Budapest, Hungary; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
Developmental disorders of language include developmental language disorder, dyslexia, and motor-speech disorders such as articulation disorder and stuttering. These disorders have generally been explained by accounts that focus on their behavioral rather than neural characteristics; their processing rather than learning impairments; and each disorder separately rather than together, despite their commonalities and comorbidities. Here we update and review a unifying neurocognitive account-the Procedural circuit Deficit Hypothesis (PDH). The PDH posits that abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory (learning and memory that rely on the basal ganglia and associated circuitry) can explain numerous brain and behavioral characteristics across learning and processing, in multiple disorders, including both commonalities and differences. We describe procedural memory, examine its role in multiple aspects of language, and then present the PDH and relevant evidence across language-related disorders. The PDH has substantial explanatory power, and both basic research and translational implications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
PMID: 31337273 DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011555
The Role of Behavioral Inhibition for Conversational Speech and Language Characteristics of Preschool-Age Children Who Stutter - EMOCIONAL
Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2020 Feb 14:1-14. [Epub ahead of print]
Tumanova V, Woods C, Razza R.
Syracuse University, NY.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to investigate whether preschool-age children who stutter (CWS) were more likely to exhibit a temperamental trait of behavioral inhibition (BI), a correlate of shyness, than children who do not stutter (CWNS) and whether this temperamental trait affected preschool-age children's speech fluency and language complexity during a conversation with an unfamiliar adult.
Method: Sixty-eight preschool-age children (31 CWS, 37 CWNS) participated. The degree of BI was assessed by measuring the latency to their sixth spontaneous comment and the number of all spontaneous comments during a conversation with an unfamiliar examiner (following Kagan et al.'s  methodology). Parent report of shyness from the Children's Behavior Questionnaire served as an indirect measure of BI. Children's language complexity was assessed by measuring their mean length of utterance and the number of words spoken. For CWS, the frequency of stuttering and the negative impact of stuttering were also assessed. Results: First, we found no between-group differences in the degree of BI across the behavioral observation measures. However, CWS were rated shyer by parents than CWNS. Second, for CWS only, higher BI was associated with less complex utterances and fewer words spoken. Third, for CWS, higher BI was associated with fewer stuttered disfluencies produced.
Conclusions : This study provides empirical evidence that BI to the unfamiliar may have salience for childhood stuttering as it affected the quantity and quality of language spoken with an unfamiliar adult. Clinical implications of high BI for the assessment and treatment of preschool-age stuttering are discussed.
PMID: 32073287 DOI: 10.1044/2019_AJSLP-19-00026
Toward a better understanding of the process of disclosure events among people who stutter - TERAPIA
J Fluency Disord. 2020 Jan 8:105746. [Epub ahead of print]
Boyle MP, Gabel R
Montclair State University, Bloomfield, NJ, United States; University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify components of disclosure events among people who stutter, and identify possible relations between these components in order to understand how disclosure events unfold.
METHOD: Twelve adults who stutter participated in semi-structured interviews focused on disclosure of stuttering. Participants were purposefully selected due to their self-reported history of disclosing stuttering. Qualitative content analysis using a grounded theory approach helped to identify relevant themes and subthemes related to the process of disclosure of stuttering.
RESULTS: The findings describe the complex process of disclosure as being comprised of antecedents (including considerations about when and why to disclose), the disclosure event itself (including the content and form of the disclosure, most and least helpful methods of disclosure, as well as immediate listener reactions), and the perceived outcomes of the disclosure at individual, dyadic, and societal/contextual levels. These components of the process are linked and affect one another, resulting in a feedback loop. Disclosure methods are context-dependent and not mutually exclusive within individuals who stutter.
CONCLUSION: Professionals and advocates gaining a more nuanced understanding of the process of disclosure events can increase their ability to help people who stutter make optimal decisions about disclosure. Making good disclosure decisions can help PWS improve their quality of life and reduce a variety of environmental communicative barriers.
PMID: 31932095 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2020.105746