Abstract - Janeiro a Julho de 2020
Communication Attitude of Kannada-Speaking School-Age Children Who Do and Do Not Stutter - AVALIAÇÃO
Folia Phoniatr Logop. 2020 Feb 4:1-8. [Epub ahead of print]
Veerabhadrappa RC, Vanryckeghem M, Maruthy S.
All India Institute of Speech and Hearing, Mysore, India, University of Central Florida, Orlando, Florida, USA.
BACKGROUND: A large body of evidence suggests that the Communication Attitude Test (CAT) is a reliable and valid tool for assessing the speech-associated attitude of school-age children who stutter (CWS).
OBJECTIVE: The purpose of the present study was to adapt and validate the CAT for the Kannada-speaking school-age CWS.
METHODS: The original version of the CAT was forward- and back-translated by the first author. The Communication Attitude Test Kannada (CAT-K) was then administered to 293 children who do not stutter (CWNS) and 100 CWS. All children were native speakers of the Kannada language and were between the ages of 7 and 14 years. The Stuttering Severity Instrument-fourth edition (SSI-4) was used to estimate the severity of stuttering.
RESULTS: The data revealed that, in comparison to CWNS, the CWS' mean CAT-K score was significantly higher, and a significant effect of stuttering severity and age on mean attitude scores was observed. In addition, results showed that the CAT-K is a reliable and valid test.
CONCLUSION: The findings suggest the presence of a negative attitude in Kannada-speaking CWS and that the CAT-K is a useful tool in the assessment of Kannada school-age CWS. Given the need for speech-language pathologists to address a speech-associated negative attitude in CWS, incorporating the CAT-K as part of the diagnostic assessment of stuttering is valuable.
PMID: 32018262 DOI: 10.1159/000505423
Disruption of the Frontal Aslant Tract is Not Associated with Long-Term Postoperative Language Deficits: A Case Report - NEUROCIÊNCIAS
World Neurosurg. 2020 Jan;133:192-195. Epub 2019 Sep 28.
Young JS, Morshed RA, Mansoori Z, Cha S, Berger MS.
University of California, San Francisco.
BACKGROUND and Importance: The frontal aslant tract (FAT) is a white matter fiber pathway connecting the superior frontal gyrus to Broca area. This tract in the dominant hemisphere has been shown to play a role in speech initiation and production, and direct subcortical stimulation can induce stuttering and speech arrest in a patient. However, controversy remains as to whether disruption of this pathway will lead to a permanent language deficit and if it is even necessary to map this tract during tumor resections of the dominant frontal lobe.
CLINICAL PRESENTATION: Here, we report a case of a patient with a lower grade diffuse glioma invading the dominant FAT that was removed with an asleep craniotomy. In the immediate postoperative state, the patient had a transcortical motor dysphasia and was unable to initiate speech. These immediate language deficits quickly recovered, and the patient was neurological intact at the time of discharge a few days after surgery.
CONCLUSION: Given the high likelihood for a complete neurological recovery including transient aphasia, we propose that awake mapping for the purpose of identifying the dominant FAT is unnecessary during tumor resection and that disruption of this tract is not associated with any long-term language deficits.
PMID: 31574328 DOI: 10.1016/j.wneu.2019.09.128
Functional near-infrared spectroscopy for speech protocols: characterization of motion artifacts and guidelines for improving data analysis - FALA
Neurophotonics. 2020 Jan;7(1):015001. Epub 2020 Jan 10.
Free full text: https://www.spiedigitallibrary.org/journals/neurophotonics/volume-7/issue-01/015001/Functional-near-infrared-spectroscopy-for-speech-protocols--characterization-of/10.1117/1.NPh.7.1.015001.full?SSO=1
Novi SL, Roberts E, Spagnuolo D, Spilsbury BM, Price DC, Imbalzano CA, Forero E, Yodh AG, Tellis GM, Tellis CM, Mesquita RC.
University of Campinas, Institute of Physics, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Brazilian Institute of Neuroscience and Neurotechnology, Campinas, São Paulo, Brazil; Misericordia University, Department of Speech-Language Pathology, Dallas, Pennsylvania, United States; University of Pennsylvania, Department of Physics and Astronomy, Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, United States.
Monitoring speech tasks with functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) enables investigation of speech production mechanisms and informs treatment strategies for speech-related disorders such as stuttering. Unfortunately, due to movement of the temporalis muscle, speech production can induce relative movement between probe optodes and skin. These movements generate motion artifacts during speech tasks. In practice, spurious hemodynamic responses in functional activation signals arise from lack of information about the consequences of speech-related motion artifacts, as well as from lack of standardized processing procedures for fNIRS signals during speech tasks. To this end, we characterize the effects of speech production on fNIRS signals, and we introduce a systematic analysis to ameliorate motion artifacts. The study measured 50 healthy subjects performing jaw movement (JM) tasks and found that JM produces two different patterns of motion artifacts in fNIRS. To remove these unwanted contributions, we validate a hybrid motion-correction algorithm based sequentially on spline interpolation and then wavelet filtering. We compared performance of the hybrid algorithm with standard algorithms based on spline interpolation only and wavelet decomposition only. The hybrid algorithm corrected 94% of the artifacts produced by JM, and it did not lead to spurious responses in the data. We also validated the hybrid algorithm during a reading task performed under two different conditions: reading aloud and reading silently. For both conditions, we observed significant cortical activation in brain regions related to reading. Moreover, when comparing the two conditions, good agreement of spatial and temporal activation patterns was found only when data were analyzed using the hybrid approach. Overall, the study demonstrates a standardized processing scheme for fNIRS data during speech protocols. The scheme decreases spurious responses and intersubject variability due to motion artifacts.
PMID: 31956662 PMCID: PMC6953699 [Available on 2021-01-10] DOI: 10.1117/1.NPh.7.1.015001
Investigating resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of school-age children who stutter - AMBIENTE
Codas. 2020 Jan 13;32(2):e20190093
Free full text: http://www.scielo.br/pdf/codas/v32n2/2317-1782-codas-32-2-e20190093.pdf
Yaşar Ö, Vural-Batık M, Özdemir Ş.
Ondokuz Mayıs University, Samsun, Turkey; Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.
PURPOSE: The attitude of mothers of children who stutter is believed to be crucial in the management of therapy process. Therefore, this study aimed at the description of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of mothers of children with stuttering, as well as at the exploration of the relationship between them.
METHODS: The study sample consisted of 33 mothers of children with stuttering aged 6-12 years. The data were gathered using the following instruments: Mother Resilience Scale, Revised Parental Social Support Scale, State-trait Anxiety Inventory, Stuttering Severity Instrument-4, and a personal information form.
RESULTS: Resilience of mothers of children who stutter was high, whereas perceived social support and trait anxiety levels of the participants were lower. Mother's increased level of perceived social support resulted in increased resilience level and decreased trait anxiety level. The trait anxiety levels of mothers with a college degree were significantly lower than those of mothers with other education levels. No statistically significant correlation was observed between stuttering severity and the levels of resilience, perceived social support and trait anxiety.
CONCLUSION: Although mothers of stuttering children present the required skills to cope with the situation, it is believed that they need more social support. Consequently, offering professional support to mothers in the course of stuttering management and referring them to appropriate intervention programs are emphasized.
PMID: 31939494 DOI: 10.1590/2317-1782/20192019093
Otorhinolaryngologists nominated for the Nobel Prize 1901-1940 - HISTÓRIA
Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol. 2020 Feb 8. [Epub ahead of print]
Hansson N, Drobietz M, Mudry A.
Heinrich-Heine-University Duesseldorf, Duesseldorf, Germany; Stanford University School of Medicine, USA.
PURPOSE: Several scholars with links to ENT have received the Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine. This overview takes into account ENT Nobel nominees, who never received the award.
METHODS: Drawing a comparison on the nominations collected in the archive of the Nobel Committee for physiology or medicine in Stockholm, the Nobel archive database and secondary literature; the paper analyzes for the first time the nominations of Hans Schmid (Stettin), Hermann Gutzmann (Berlin), Karl Wittmaack (Hamburg), and Chevalier Jackson (Chicago). We also bring up nomination letters written by prominent German nominators such as Hermann Schwartze (one of the founders of this journal) and August Lucae.
RESULTS: Hans Schmid was the first surgeon to be brought up in a Nobel Prize nomination for an ENT procedure (1901), but since he had passed away 5 years earlier he was not evaluated by the Nobel Committee. Hermann Gutzmann was a strong candidate in 1917 and reached the shortlist because of his pioneering work on stutter, but no Nobel Prize in physiology or medicine was awarded that year. In the 1930's, both Karl Wittmaack and Chevalier Jackson were repeatedly nominated for ENT research.
CONCLUSION: Nobel Prize nominations are to date underused sources that shed new light on some scholars in ENT history.
PMID: 32036407 DOI: 10.1007/s00405-020-05833-y
The Application of EEG Mu Rhythm Measures to Neurophysiological Research in Stuttering. - NEUROCIÊNCIAS
Front Hum Neurosci. 2020 Jan 10;13:458.
Jenson D, Bowers AL, Hudock D, Saltuklaroglu T.
Washington State University, Spokane, WA, United States; University of Arkansas, Fayetteville, AR, United States; Idaho State University, Pocatello, ID, United States; University of Tennessee Health Science Center, Knoxville, TN, United States.
Deficits in basal ganglia-based inhibitory and timing circuits along with sensorimotor internal modeling mechanisms are thought to underlie stuttering. However, much remains to be learned regarding the precise manner how these deficits contribute to disrupting both speech and cognitive functions in those who stutter. Herein, we examine the suitability of electroencephalographic (EEG) mu rhythms for addressing these deficits. We review some previous findings of mu rhythm activity differentiating stuttering from non-stuttering individuals and present some new preliminary findings capturing stuttering-related deficits in working memory. Mu rhythms are characterized by spectral peaks in alpha (8-13 Hz) and beta (14-25 Hz) frequency bands (mu-alpha and mu-beta). They emanate from premotor/motor regions and are influenced by basal ganglia and sensorimotor function. More specifically, alpha peaks (mu-alpha) are sensitive to basal ganglia-based inhibitory signals and sensory-to-motor feedback. Beta peaks (mu-beta) are sensitive to changes in timing and capture motor-to-sensory (i.e., forward model) projections. Observing simultaneous changes in mu-alpha and mu-beta across the time-course of specific events provides a rich window for observing neurophysiological deficits associated with stuttering in both speech and cognitive tasks and can provide a better understanding of the functional relationship between these stuttering symptoms. We review how independent component analysis (ICA) can extract mu rhythms from raw EEG signals in speech production tasks, such that changes in alpha and beta power are mapped to myogenic activity from articulators. We review findings from speech production and auditory discrimination tasks demonstrating that mu-alpha and mu-beta are highly sensitive to capturing sensorimotor and basal ganglia deficits associated with stuttering with high temporal precision. Novel findings from a non-word repetition (working memory) task are also included. They show reduced mu-alpha suppression in a stuttering group compared to a typically fluent group. Finally, we review current limitations and directions for future research.
PMID: 31998103 PMCID: PMC6965028 DOI: 10.3389/fnhum.2019.00458
The Neurocognition of Developmental Disorders of Language - NEUROCIÊNCIAS
Annu Rev Psychol. 2020 Jan 4; 71: 389-417. Epub 2019 Jul 23
Ullman MT, Earle FS, Walenski M, Janacsek K.
Georgetown University, Washington; University of Delaware, Newark, Delaware, USA; Northwestern University, Evanston, Illinois, USA; Eotvos Lorand University (ELTE), Budapest, Hungary; Hungarian Academy of Sciences, Budapest, Hungary.
Developmental disorders of language include developmental language disorder, dyslexia, and motor-speech disorders such as articulation disorder and stuttering. These disorders have generally been explained by accounts that focus on their behavioral rather than neural characteristics; their processing rather than learning impairments; and each disorder separately rather than together, despite their commonalities and comorbidities. Here we update and review a unifying neurocognitive account-the Procedural circuit Deficit Hypothesis (PDH). The PDH posits that abnormalities of brain structures underlying procedural memory (learning and memory that rely on the basal ganglia and associated circuitry) can explain numerous brain and behavioral characteristics across learning and processing, in multiple disorders, including both commonalities and differences. We describe procedural memory, examine its role in multiple aspects of language, and then present the PDH and relevant evidence across language-related disorders. The PDH has substantial explanatory power, and both basic research and translational implications. Expected final online publication date for the Annual Review of Psychology Volume 71 is January 4, 2020. Please see http://www.annualreviews.org/page/journal/pubdates for revised estimates.
PMID: 31337273 DOI: 10.1146/annurev-psych-122216-011555
Toward a better understanding of the process of disclosure events among people who stutter - TERAPIA
J Fluency Disord. 2020 Jan 8:105746. [Epub ahead of print]
Boyle MP, Gabel R
Montclair State University, Bloomfield, NJ, United States; University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States.
PURPOSE: The purpose of this study was to identify components of disclosure events among people who stutter, and identify possible relations between these components in order to understand how disclosure events unfold.
METHOD: Twelve adults who stutter participated in semi-structured interviews focused on disclosure of stuttering. Participants were purposefully selected due to their self-reported history of disclosing stuttering. Qualitative content analysis using a grounded theory approach helped to identify relevant themes and subthemes related to the process of disclosure of stuttering.
RESULTS: The findings describe the complex process of disclosure as being comprised of antecedents (including considerations about when and why to disclose), the disclosure event itself (including the content and form of the disclosure, most and least helpful methods of disclosure, as well as immediate listener reactions), and the perceived outcomes of the disclosure at individual, dyadic, and societal/contextual levels. These components of the process are linked and affect one another, resulting in a feedback loop. Disclosure methods are context-dependent and not mutually exclusive within individuals who stutter.
CONCLUSION: Professionals and advocates gaining a more nuanced understanding of the process of disclosure events can increase their ability to help people who stutter make optimal decisions about disclosure. Making good disclosure decisions can help PWS improve their quality of life and reduce a variety of environmental communicative barriers.
PMID: 31932095 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2020.105746