Abstract - Agosto a Dezembro de 2020
An Evaluation of an Integrated Stuttering and Parent-Administered Self-Regulation Program for Early Developmental Stuttering Disorders - ATENÇÃO
J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2020 Aug 19;1-19. Online ahead of print.
Kerianne Druker, Trevor Mazzucchelli, Neville Hennessey, Janet Beilby
Curtin University, Perth, Western Australia, Australia; The University of Queensland, Brisbane, Australia.
Purpose This study reports findings from a clinical trial that implemented an early stuttering treatment program integrated with evidence-based parenting support (EBPS) to children who stutter (CWS) with concomitant self-regulation challenges manifested in elevated attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (eADHD) symptoms and compared those outcomes to CWS receiving stuttering treatment without EBPS. Method Participants were 76 preschool CWS and their parent(s). Thirty-six of these children presented with eADHD and were quasirandomized into two groups: stuttering treatment only (eADHDstandard) or stuttering treatment integrated with EBPS (eADHDintegrated). The remaining children did not meet criteria for eADHD symptoms and received stuttering treatment only (No-eADHDstandard). Pre, post, and 3-month follow-up measures of stuttering treatment outcomes as well as treatment effects on measures of child behavior difficulties and parenting practices were examined.
Results Significant reduction in stuttering was found for all groups. However, the eADHDintegrated group showed a greater reduction in stuttering frequency than the eADHDstandard group, and at follow-up, stuttering frequencies in the eADHDintegrated group matched those of children in the No-eADHDstandard group, while stuttering in the eADHDstandard group remained significantly higher. Children with eADHD symptoms who received the integrated program also required significantly less stuttering intervention time than those children with eADHD symptoms who received stuttering treatment only. Families in the eADHDintegrated group reported large and significant improvements in child behavior and parenting practices.
Conclusion This study provides support for an early treatment program for CWS. The integrated stuttering and self-regulation management program for CWS with eADHD symptoms proved successful for fluency and behavioral improvements, which were sustained at follow-up.
PMID: 32812840 DOI: 10.1044/2020_JSLHR-19-00310
Behavioral, social, and emotional well-being in children who stutter: the influence of race-ethnicity - SOCIAL
Logoped Phoniatr Vocol. 2020 Aug 5;1-9. Online ahead of print.
Patrick M Briley, Charles Ellis
East Carolina University, Greenville, NC, USA.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine if reports of behavioral, emotional and social well-being in children who stutter differ across racial-ethnic groups.
Materials and methods: Using 2010-2015 National Health Interview Surveys, data was analyzed from responses of children who stutter's parents, in the United States, to items of the Strength and Difficulties Questionnaire. Parent responses of reporting Strengths and Difficulties Questionnaire items were determined using multiple logistic regression analyses.
Results: This sample included a total 42,962 children, of which 875 were identified as children who stutter. Among the children who stutter, reports of well-being were compared from 294 non-Hispanic White, 249 non-Hispanic Black, and 332 Hispanic children who stutter. Results indicated Black children who stutter were less likely than White children who stutter to have many worries, to be unhappy/depressed, and less likely to have difficulties with emotions and concentration. Hispanic children who stutter were less likely than White children who stutter to have many worries, to be unhappy/depressed, and less likely to have difficulties with emotions and concentration. Additionally, differences were observed in measures of behavioral, emotional, and social well-being when within-group comparisons were made, as a function of gender, and when comparisons were made across racial-ethnic groups at different age ranges.
Conclusions: Evidence from National Health Interview Surveys suggests racial-ethnic differences exist in reports of behavioral, emotional, and social well-being among children who stutter. Future research is needed to clarify specific contributors to the observed differences across racial-ethnic groups and whether differences are primarily associated with race-ethnicity, the presence of stuttering, or both.
PMID: 32755342 DOI: 10.1080/14015439.2020.1801833
Categorical perception of speech sounds in adults who stutter - AUDITIVO
Clin Linguist Phon. 2020 Aug 12;1-17. Online ahead of print.
Mehdi Bakhtiar, Jing Shao, Man Na Cheung, Caicai Zhang
The Hong Kong Polytechnic University , Hong Kong SAR, China; Faculty of Arts, Hong Kong Baptist University , Hong Kong SAR, China.
Stuttering is often attributed to the impaired speech production system, however, there is growing evidence implicating issues in speech perception. Our previous research showed that children who stutter have similar patterns but slower categorical perception (i.e. the ability to categorise different acoustic variations of the speech sounds into the same or different phonemic categories) compared to the children who do not stutter. This study aimed to extend our previous research to adults who stutter (AWS) using the same categorical perception paradigm. Fifteen AWS and 15 adults who do not stutter (A WNS) were recruited to complete identification and discrimination tasks involving acoustic variations of Cantonese speech sounds in four stimulus contexts: consonants (varying in voice onset times, VOTs), lexical tones, vowels and pure tones. The results showed similar categorical perception between the two groups in terms of the boundary position and width in the identification task and between-category benefits in the discrimination task. However, there were some trends for lower discrimination accuracy (overall d' scores) and slower discrimination of the between-category stimuli versus within-category stimuli for AWS than AWNS. These results partially confirm our previous finding on children in terms of a comparable pattern of categorical perception between the two groups, but slower processing speed to access the phoneme representations in speech perception among AWS than AWNS.
PMID: 32787467 DOI: 10.1080/02699206.2020.1803407
Clinical Characteristics Associated With Stuttering Persistence: A Meta-Analysis - AVALIAÇÃO
J Speech Lang Hear Res. 2020 Aug 10;1-24. Online ahead of print.
Cara M Singer, Alison Hessling, Ellen M Kelly, Lisa Singer, Robin M Jones
Grand Valley State University, Grand Rapids, MI; Baylor University, Waco, TX; Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN; Dana-Farber Cancer Institute and Brigham and Women's Hospital, Boston, MA.
Purpose The purpose of this meta-analytic study was to identify clinical characteristics, defined as child factors that can be assessed by a speech-language pathologist as part of a routine speech-language evaluation that may differentiate children who persist in stuttering from children who eventually recover from stuttering. Clinical characteristics explored included sex, age at onset, family history of stuttering, stuttering frequency and severity, speech-language skills, and temperament.
Method Studies were identified through electronic databases, journals, and reference lists of relevant reports (e.g., research articles). Eligible studies followed young children who stutter (i.e., under 6 years old) for at least 24 months, assessed a potential clinical marker at study entry, and determined talker group classification (i.e., persistent or recovered) at study completion. Sex and family history differences were estimated using risk ratios; all other differences were estimated using Hedges's g. Heterogeneity and methodological differences among studies were evaluated.
Results Eleven studies (41 reports) met eligibility criteria. Persistent children were older at stuttering onset and exhibited higher frequencies of stuttering-like disfluencies, lower speech sound accuracy, and lower expressive and receptive language skills than recovered children. Males and children with a family history of stuttering were also more likely to persist.
Conclusions Clinical characteristics were identified that are associated with increased risk for stuttering persistence. Future studies have the potential to translate these clinical characteristics into prognostic markers for stuttering persistence risk.
PMID: 32772868 DOI: 10.1044/2020_JSLHR-20-00096
Comparing and Predicting Public Attitudes Toward Stuttering, Obesity, and Mental Illness - SOCIAL
Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2020 Aug 28;1-16. Online ahead of print.
Kenneth O St Louis
West Virginia University, Morgantown.
Purpose Extensive research on public attitudes has documented stigma toward stuttering, obesity, and mental illness; however, most studies have focused on only one of these conditions. This study sought to compare public attitudes toward stuttering, obesity, and mental illness as well as to identify the predictive potential of four ratings relating to these and other neutral or desirable conditions.
Method Five hundred respondents who were selected from each of three international databases filled out the Public Opinion Survey of Human Attributes (POSHA) for stuttering, obesity, or mental illness. The POSHA surveys were as similar as possible, and all contained four general items asking respondents' "impression" of the attribute, extent to which he or she "wants to be/have" that attribute, "amount known" about the attribute, and "persons known" who manifest the attribute, for stuttering, obesity, and mental illness plus two others, namely, left-handedness and intelligence. The POSHA surveys also had the same summary scores, Beliefs, Self-Reactions, and an Overall Score.
Results Summary scores for the three POSHA surveys in the 500-respondent samples revealed negative attitudes toward all three conditions, the most positive being toward obesity, followed by stuttering and then by mental illness. Stepwise regression analysis indicated that various general items had significant prediction potential not only of attitudes for the same condition but also of attitudes for other conditions. The greatest other condition predictions were between stuttering and mental illness.
Conclusions Stuttering is regarded as less stigmatizing than mental illness but more stigmatizing than obesity. Additionally, positivity toward one condition results in limited positivity toward the others. Impressions and knowledge of-as well as experience with-stigmatized conditions can inform public awareness campaigns and individual clinical programs dealing with stigma.
PMID: 32857617 DOI: 10.1044/2020_AJSLP-20-00038
Ehud Yairi: Reflections on a Career - HISTÓRIA
J Fluency Disord. 2020 Aug 12;65:105779. Online ahead of print.
University of Technology Sydney, Australia.
This is the second in a series of papers that provides an historical record in this journal of contributions made by the most influential researchers in the field of fluency disorders. The present paper reflects on the long and productive career of Ehud Yairi, outlining his many contributions to the field of stuttering, and his outstanding achievements and accomplishments. The paper is based on interviews with him during 2020, after the conclusion of his research career. His visionary, lifetime work has advanced our understanding of the nature, origins, and epidemiology of this disorder.
PMID: 32823252 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2020.105779
Functional Near-Infrared Spectroscopy in the Study of Speech and Language Impairment Across the Life Span: A Systematic Review - NEUROCIÊNCIAS
Am J Speech Lang Pathol. 2020 Aug 4;29(3):1674-1701. Epub 2020 Jul 8
Lindsay K Butler, Swathi Kiran, Helen Tager-Flusberg
Boston University, MA.
Purpose Functional brain imaging is playing an increasingly important role in the diagnosis and treatment of communication disorders, yet many populations and settings are incompatible with functional magnetic resonance imaging and other commonly used techniques. We conducted a systematic review of neuroimaging studies using functional near-infrared spectroscopy (fNIRS) with individuals with speech or language impairment across the life span. We aimed to answer the following question: To what extent has fNIRS been used to investigate the neural correlates of speech-language impairment?
Method This systematic review was preregistered with PROSPERO, the international prospective register of systematic reviews (CRD42019136464). We followed the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses (PRISMA) protocol for preferred reporting items for systematic reviews. The database searches were conducted between February and March of 2019 with the following search terms: (a) fNIRS or functional near-infrared spectroscopy or NIRS or near-infrared spectroscopy, (b) speech or language, and (c) disorder or impairment or delay.
Results We found 34 fNIRS studies that involved individuals with speech or language impairment across nine categories: (a) autism spectrum disorders; (b) developmental speech and language disorders; (c) cochlear implantation and deafness; (d) dementia, dementia of the Alzheimer's type, and mild cognitive impairment; (e) locked-in syndrome; (f) neurologic speech disorders/dysarthria; (g) stroke/aphasia; (h) stuttering; and (i) traumatic brain injury.
Conclusions Though it is not without inherent challenges, fNIRS may have advantages over other neuroimaging techniques in the areas of speech and language impairment. fNIRS has clinical applications that may lead to improved early and differential diagnosis, increase our understanding of response to treatment, improve neuroprosthetic functioning, and advance neurofeedback.
"Openness and progress with communication and confidence have all gone hand in hand": Reflections on the experience of transitioning between concealment and openness among adults who stutter - TERAPIA
J Fluency Disord. 2020 Aug 14;65:105781. Online ahead of print.
Michael P Boyle, Rodney M Gabel
Montclair State University, Bloomfield, NJ, United States; University of Toledo, Toledo, OH, United States.
Purpose: The purpose of this study was to gain a deeper understanding of the experience of people who stutter as they navigate through the growth process from concealment to openness.
Method: Twelve adults who stutter who are active in self-help/support groups for stuttering described their experiences of concealment and openness in a semi-structured interview. Purposeful selection was utilized to recruit participants who could comment thoughtfully on previous concealing, but became more open about their stuttering. A phenomenological approach was utilized to gain a deeper understanding of how people who stutter experience the transition from concealment to openness regarding their stuttering and identity. Thematic analysis contributed to identification of themes and subthemes describing participants' experiences.
Results: Participants described precursors to concealment that led to hiding and avoidance, which grew in strength until they reached a turning point. They then changed how they related to their stuttering by changing their behaviors and perceptions of stuttering, which led to increased openness about their identity. This process of continued adaptation to stuttering was ongoing and non-linear, but suggested general trends from concealment to more openness over time. Level of openness was impacted by situational context and individual differences.
Conclusions: The findings extend our understanding of how people who stutter navigate transitions from concealment to openness. This deeper understanding could be helpful in explaining the complexities involved in managing the identity of a person who stutters, and the process of adapting to living with stuttering over time.
PMID: 32846333 DOI: 10.1016/j.jfludis.2020.105781
Rapid naming ability in adults with stuttering - FALA
Appl Neuropsychol Adult. 2020 Aug 26;1-6. Online ahead of print
Krupa Rajan Pothen, Sunila John, Vasudeva Guddattu
Manipal Academy of Higher Education, Manipal, India.
The investigation of phonological encoding abilities in persons with stuttering has gained importance recently. There is limited information available on the rapid automatized naming ability in adults with stuttering. In the present study, rapid naming ability was assessed in 32 persons with stuttering and 32 persons without stuttering in the age range of 18-30 years on Rapid Automatized Naming and Rapid Alternating Stimulus test. The study findings indicated that the persons with stuttering took a longer time to complete the tasks as compared to persons without stuttering, suggestive of a possible breakdown in phonological encoding ability. Among the subtasks, the longer completion time was observed for the rapid alternating stimulus 3-set task and the color subtasks. The findings of the study clearly propose the need to encompass rapid naming skills, as a part of the assessment and management protocol for individuals with stuttering.
PMID: 32847407 DOI: 10.1080/23279095.2020.1808787
Scientists, Society, and Stuttering - CONCEITO
Int J Clin Pract. 2020 Aug 15;e13678. Online ahead of print.
Shahriar SheikhBahaei, Gerald A Maguire
National Institutes of Health (NIH), Bethesda, MD, USA; University of California, Riverside, School of Medicine, CA, USA.
More than 70 million people worldwide are affected by developmental stuttering. It is important to reach out to the public, scientific and medical communities, and those who stutter with a goal to raise awareness about stuttering. In this short perspective, we argue that to educate, advocate, and spread awareness about stuttering, we need role models, support, and opportunities.
PMID: 32798317 DOI: 10.1111/ijcp.13678